History

College of Liberal & Creative Arts

Dean: Andrew Harris

Department of History

Science Building, Room 276
Phone: (415) 338–1604
E-mail: history@sfsu.edu

Chair: Trevor Getz
Graduate Coordinators: Sarah Curtis and Jessica Elkind

Program Scope

History is the study of change in human societies over time. Undergraduates majoring in history may select advanced courses focusing upon the entire range of life within a nation or region during a given time period, or courses dealing with some specialized aspect of life (social history, economic history, etc.), or courses which explore the concepts and methodology of historical research and analysis.

The Master of Arts in History is offered with specialties in the United States, World History, Europe and the Mediterranean before C.E. 1500, Europe after C.E. 1500, Early Modern Europe, and Gender in History. The M.A. is designed to accommodate students' interests and needs as they pursue a course of study under the direction of a committee of faculty members. Together with their committee, students plan a program to give both depth and breadth to their understanding of the past. The faculty is familiar with and sensitive to the needs of students who must work, part-time or full-time, while pursuing their graduate program. San Francisco and the Bay Area contain many libraries, archival repositories, and historical agencies where students can do research or obtain on-site experience through an internship.

Career Outlook

The history program provides training for those interested in a teaching credential, for those preparing to do graduate work in several fields. The critical thinking and writing skills developed through the study of History at SF State are applicable to any area of employment. Our majors also find work outside of the classroom in marketing, politics, law, archival work, and project management.

Single Subject Teaching Credential: History/Social Science

Students who are considering teaching in the secondary schools should see a departmental credential program advisor before planning their program.

Professors

Curtis, D'Agostino, Getz, Hsu, Kudlick, Oñate, Rodriguez, Stein, Wolf

Associate Professors

Behrooz, Chekuri, Dreyfus, Elkind, Lisy-Wagner, Mabalon, Postel, Williams

Assistant Professors

Campbell, Crabtree, Viator

Lecturers

Arrieta, Corea, Germany, Katz, Leikin, Livie, Pafford, Sigmon

HIST 101 Critical Thinking in History (Units: 3)

Exploration of how to think historically and critically analyze the work of historians. Subject matter includes identifying, differentiating, constructing, and evaluating arguments, recognizing fallacies, and applying formal and informal reasoning to the study of the past. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated when topics vary. (Plus-minus ABC/NC)
(Note: In order for this course to satisfy General Education, students must earn a C- or CR or higher grade if taken fall 2014 or later.)

Course Attributes:

  • A3: Critical Thinking
  • Social Justice

HIST 110 History of Western Civilization I (Units: 3)

The growth of the political, economic, and cultural institutions of the Western World from the beginnings to the Renaissance.

Course Attributes:

  • C2: Humanities
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 111 History of Western Civilization II (Units: 3)

From the Renaissance to the present.

Course Attributes:

  • C2: Humanities
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 114 World History to 1500 (Units: 3)

The world's civilizations from 4500 B.C.E. to 1500 C.E.

Course Attributes:

  • D1: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 115 World History Since 1500 (Units: 3)

The world's civilizations from 1500 C.E. to the present.

Course Attributes:

  • D1: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 120 History of the U.S. through Reconstruction (Units: 3)

History of the U.S. from Colonial times to the end of Reconstruction and the beginnings of the Industrial Age. Political, constitutional, economic, and cultural aspects of American life as they developed both nationally and locally.

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • D2: Social Sciences: U.S. Hist

HIST 121 History of the U.S. since Reconstruction (Units: 3)

History of the U.S. from the end of Reconstruction to the present. Political, constitutional, economic, and cultural aspects of American life as they developed both nationally and locally.

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • D2: Social Sciences: U.S. Hist

HIST 130 Survey of U.S. History for Foreign Students (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Not open to students who have had U.S. history in a U.S. high school.

The American people from colonial times to the present; the development of American political, social, and economic institutions.

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • D2: Social Sciences: U.S. Hist

HIST 278 History of Latinos in the U.S. (Units: 3)

Examination of the social-cultural, economic, and political foundations of Latino History from the Spanish colonial period to the present.
(This course is offered as LTNS 278 and HIST 278. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • D2: Social Sciences: U.S. Hist
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Social Justice

HIST 300GW Seminar in Historical Analysis - GWAR (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent with a grade of C or better; or consent of instructor.

The nature and sources of historical evidence and the tools and techniques of historical writing and interpretation; the philosophy of history. (ABC/NC grading only)

Course Attributes:

  • Graduation Writing Assessment

HIST 302 Doing Local History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Learning the methodological skills of doing local history: the use of manuscript collections, family letters and diaries, oral history interviewing techniques, and finding little known historical collections.

HIST 303 Introduction to Oral History: Disability, Memory, and Experience (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Utilization of oral history to explore the multifaceted dimensions of ability and disability in the history of the San Francisco Bay region.

HIST 304 Teaching History with Comics (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: English 214.

Exploration of the study and teaching of the past using comic books and graphic novels produced by historians as memories and commemorations of events. Engages questions of culture, power, and empathy culminating in pedagogy-oriented projects. (Plus-minus ABC/NC, CR/NC)

HIST 313 Comparative History of Love and Sexuality (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Development of and changes in the attitudes and practices surrounding love and sexuality on selected western and non-western cultures from antiquity to the present.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Global Perspectives
  • Social Justice

HIST 315 History of Science from the Scientific Revolution (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 214 or equivalent, or consent of instructor.

Examination of the development of modern science from the Scientific Revolution to the present and changes in the relationship between people and their environment during the transition from feudalism to capitalism and through industrialization to the modern environmental movement.
(This course is offered as HIST 315 and HUM 315. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 317 The Holocaust and Genocide (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Process and conditions which led to the harassment, expulsion, and extermination of the Jews during World War II; new information about the concentration camp system.
(This course is offered as HIST 317 and JS 317. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 320 Archaic and Classical Greece (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Political, institutional, and cultural history of Greece from the Bronze Age to the end of the Peloponnesian War.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 321 Hellenistic Greece (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Political, institutional, and cultural history of Greece from the end of the 5th century to 146 B.C.E.

HIST 322 The Roman Republic (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Political, institutional, and cultural history of Rome from the Etruscans to the outbreak of the Civil War of 49 B.C.E.

HIST 323 Imperial Rome (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Political, institutional, and cultural history of Rome from the outbreak of the Civil War of 49 B.C.E. to the council of Nicaea (325 C.E.).

HIST 324 Greek and Roman Coins in Historical Context (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Upper division standing or consent of instructor

Exploration of the production, social function, and iconography of Greek and Roman coins and how they can help write the history of the ancient world. Study of actual ancient coins in the Lindgren Coin Collection, which includes almost 3000 silver and bronze coins.
(This course is offered as CLAR 324 and HIST 324. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 325 Late Antiquity (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Political, social, economic, and cultural history of the Mediterranean world from the 4th to the 8th centuries C.E. Roman Empire and its early Greek, German, and Arabic-speaking successor states.

HIST 326 The Byzantine Empire (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 214 or equivalent.

Political, social, economic, cultural history of Byzantine Empire from 7th to 15th centuries A.D.; relations of Byzantium with Germanic, Slavic, Arabic, and Turkic-speaking neighbors.
(This course is offered as MGS 510, CLAS 510, HIST 326. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 327 The Medieval Mediterranean (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Examination of the interaction of geography, economy, religion, state, and society in the Mediterranean from the 6th to 15th centuries and complex Christian, Muslim, and Jewish conceptualizations of culture.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 328 Early Christian Church to 313 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Christian Church from its beginnings to the conversion of Constantine. Quest for the historical Jesus; Orthodoxy and Gnosticism; development of worship; the Apologists; the phenomenon of martyrdom.

HIST 329 Early Christian Church: 313-787 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Christian Church from the conversion of Constantine to Iconoclasm. Establishment of the Imperial Church; monasticism; doctrinal controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries; worship; Rome, Africa, and the development of the papal primacy.

HIST 330 The Early Middle Ages (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Society and culture in early medieval Europe, up to the 12th century.
(This course is offered as HIST 330 and HUM 403. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 331 The High Middle Ages (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Upper division standing or consent of instructor.

Society and culture in medieval Europe from the 12th to the 14th century.
(This course is offered as HUM 404 and HIST 331. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 334 The Renaissance (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Political and economic conditions during the 14th and 15th centuries; the rise and spread of humanism; intellectual, political, and cultural developments characteristic of the Renaissance era.

HIST 336 The Reformation (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Causes and progress of the Lutheran Reformation, variations within Protestantism, the Counter-Reformation; political and economic history of the 16th century.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 337 Knowing and Unknowing in Early Modern Europe (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Examines ideological changes in Early Modern Europe by focusing on the dichotomies of knowing and unknowing, reason and religious mysticism, science and faith.

HIST 338 Europe and the Wider World, 1348-1768 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent

Examination of European history in a global light; impact of non-Europeans and marginalized inhabitants of Europe on political, social, economic, and intellectual developments in Europe.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives
  • Social Justice

HIST 342 French Revolution and Napoleon (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

The development of the Revolution in France and its colonies; rise and fall of Napoleon.

HIST 344 Nineteenth Century Europe (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Development of Western Europe from the time of the fall of Napoleon to World War I (1814-1914).

HIST 346 Recent European History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Western Europe since the eve of World War I; political and social problems originating in the conditions of the interwar period and World War II.
(This course is offered as HIST 346 and I R 346. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 347 Women in Modern Europe (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Social, economic, political, and intellectual life of European women since 1500.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Global Perspectives
  • Social Justice

HIST 348 Modern European Intellectual and Cultural History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

European intellectual and cultural history from the Enlightenment to the present, and how this history has reacted to the changing European social and political landscape.

HIST 349 Topics in European History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Rotating course covering the history and historiography of a particular theme, event, or problem in European History. Topics to be specified in class schedule. May be repeated when topics vary.

HIST 350 Greece and the Balkans (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 214 or equivalent.

History of Greece and the Balkans from the Fall of Constantinople to the present.
(This course is offered as MGS 350 and HIST 350. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 351 Venetians and Ottomans in the Eastern Mediterranean and Greece (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Examination of the Republic of Venice in conjunction with the Ottoman Empire in their interactions in the eastern Mediterranean.
(This course is offered as HIST 351 and MGS 351. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 352 From Glory to Debt: Greece from the 19th to the 21st Centuries (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Examination of political, social, and economic crises and transformations sustained by the Modern Greek State from 1830 to the present.
(This course is offered as HIST 352 and MGS 352. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 385 The Russian Revolution (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Crisis and collapse of Imperial Russia, traditions of the Russian revolutionaries, and rise of the Soviet Union of Stalin.

HIST 386 Soviet Russia, the West, and the Cold War (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Relations between the Soviets and the West from 1945 to 1991; nuclear arms race and geopolitical conflicts.

HIST 387 The Era of Globalization, 1968-2008 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Survey of world history between 1968 and 2008, seen as a process of globalization in the world economy and polity. Focus on fall of Soviet Bloc, rise of Islam, and emergence of new power centers in Asia and Latin America.

Course Attributes:

  • Global Perspectives

HIST 389 European International History: 1848-1918 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

International relations of the European states: diplomatic history, including the range of cultural and intellectual contacts among them.

HIST 390 Era of the World Wars 1918 to 1945 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

International relations of the European states, diplomatic history: including the range of cultural and intellectual contacts among them.

HIST 400 History of Modern European Imperialism (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Theories and ideologies of imperialism, experiences of colonial rule, and interaction within and between empires.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives
  • Social Justice

HIST 405 Maritime History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Investigates the ocean as an important site of historical change from 1500-present. Considers political, economic, cultural and environmental factors.

HIST 418 Society and Politics in American History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Changing nature of political patterns from the American Revolution to the present. Parties, elections, and policy-making at national level; ideological, social, and economic bases of politics.

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Social Justice

HIST 420 American Colonial History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

English colonies in North America from the settlement of Jamestown to the preliminaries of the great war for Empire. Modification of European institutions and ideals in the New World.

HIST 421 Food Fights: The Politics of American Jewish Consumption, 1654-Present (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 214 or equivalent.

Exploration of the politics of religion, food, and eating among Jews in the US from the late nineteenth century to the present. Focus on American Jewish foodways: cultural, social, historical, political, and economic practices of food production and consumption that have sustained and demarcated Jewish communities.
(This course is offered as JS 421 and HIST 421. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 422 The American Revolution (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Causes of the American Revolution; the War for Independence, social and cultural change regarding gender, race, and class.

HIST 424 History of the United States: 1827-1877 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Internal development and expansion of the American people and the rise of sectional conflict, culminating in the Civil War and Reconstruction era.

HIST 426 History of the United States: 1877-1916 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

U.S. history from 1877 to 1916: impact of industrialization, urbanization, immigration on existing social and political systems.

HIST 427 History of the United States: 1916-1945 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

U.S. history from 1916 to 1945: politics of the New Era and New Deal; involvement in two world wars and its domestic impact; changing social, economic, and intellectual patterns.

HIST 428 History of the United States Since 1945 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

U.S. history since 1945: politics, foreign policy and changing social, economic, and intellectual patterns.

HIST 441 American Jews and Popular Culture (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 114 or equivalent.

Examination of presentation and participation of Jews in American popular culture of the 20th and 21st centuries. Focused on the representation of Jews and Judaism in film, television, and media. Representation of Jews and Judaism in literature, athletics, food, museums, and consumer culture also addressed.
(This course is offered as JS 441, HIST 441 and HUM 441. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 448 The American West (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

The trans-Mississippi West in American history and thought: the century from 1846 to 1945.

HIST 449 American Jewish History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 114 or equivalent.

American Jewish History from 1654 to the present. Traces social, political, religious and economic history of Jews in colonial America and the United States. Topics: influence of government, immigration, religion, anti-Semitism, regionalism, acculturation.
(This course is offered as JS 449 and HIST 449. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Social Justice

HIST 450 History of California (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

California through the Spanish and early American periods to the present.

Course Attributes:

  • Calif State & Local Govt
  • UD-D: Social Sciences

HIST 451 Bay Area History and Society (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 214 or equivalent.

Exploration of the Bay Area, specifically San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley, and San Jose, from a sociohistorical and global perspective. Exploration of various dimensions of the bay area's human and environmental composition and history, paying special attention to the built environment, immigration, globalization, race, and class.
(This course is offered as A U 303 and HIST 451. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Social Justice

HIST 455 The Philippines and the United States (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Examination of the relationship between the Philippines and the U.S and Filipinas/os and Americans over the period from the Philippine Revolution against Spain in 1896 to the present.

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Global Perspectives
  • Social Justice

HIST 460 U.S. Foreign Relations to 1913 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Establishment and transformation of American foreign relations from the revolutionary period until the eve of World War I.

HIST 461 U.S. Foreign Relations: 1913 - Present (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

The role of the U.S. in the world from 1913 to the present. Topics include: creation of American empire, emergence of U.S. as a superpower, the Cold War, U.S. in the international community.

HIST 462 Making Whites: Race-making in America (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Upper division standing or consent of instructor.

Evolution and implications of whiteness in America from colonial period to the present post-Civil Rights, multicultural era; includes the definition of whiteness and critical role of the racial construction of whiteness in the history of American racism and race relations.
(This course is offered as RRS 670 and HIST 462. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 464 American Ethnic and Racial Relations to1890 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

How ideas and practices of race and ethnicity developed and changed in colonial North America and the U.S., 1600s to the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Global Perspectives
  • Social Justice

HIST 465 American Ethnic and Racial Relations II: 1890 - Present (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Effects of ethnic and race relations on American life from the closing of the frontier to the present: Russian Jews, American Irish, Mexican Americans, Japanese, and African-Americans.

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Global Perspectives
  • Social Justice

HIST 466 History of People of Color in the U.S. (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Upper division standing or consent of instructor.

History of the U.S. people of color, their experience in the development of American society, from the 1600s to present. Consequences of domination and racism in thwarting economic interests, and responses to limiting institutional arrangements.
(This course is offered as RRS 600 and HIST 466. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Social Justice

HIST 467 Women in the U.S. to 1890 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

History of the changing social, economic, political, and intellectual life of women in the U.S., from the period of colonization to 1890.

HIST 468 Women in U.S.: 1890-Present (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214.

History of the changing social, economic, political, and intellectual life of women in the U.S., 1890 to the present.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Social Justice

HIST 469 American Childhoods: Past and Present (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

American childhoods through time and across the cultures since the 17th century.

HIST 470 The U.S. Constitution to 1877 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

U.S. constitutional developments from the Magna Carta through Reconstruction. The Constitution as a living instrument, shaping and changing national trends.

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. Govt CA State Local Govt
  • U.S. History
  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Social Justice

HIST 471 The U.S. Constitution since 1877 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

U.S. Constitutional history from the Reconstruction era to the present. The Constitution as a living instrument, shaping and changing national trends.

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. Govt CA State Local Govt
  • U.S. History
  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities
  • Social Justice

HIST 472 The Courts, Politics and Social change in U.S. History, 1880-2000 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; HIST 214.

Examination of watershed moments in American history through court cases from the late 19th and 20th centuries. The cases include the Haymarket Anarchists trial, the Scopes trial, the Korematsu internment case, the Loving decision of 1967 and Roe v. Wade.

HIST 473 Unfree Labor in Early America (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

An examination and comparison of various forms of unfree labor in early America from the colonial period to the Civil War, tracing change over time and investigating the relationship among economic systems, ideology, and social relations.
(This course is offered as HIST 473, ETHS 473, and LABR 473. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 474 History of Labor in the United States (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Development of the workforce and organized labor in the U.S. Social and economic characteristics of work and the workforce; characteristics of labor organizations at different times.
(This course is offered as HIST 474, ECON 474, and LABR 474. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 476 American Environmental History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Upper division standing or consent of instructor.

Americans' interactions with the physical environment from the European colonial period to the present.

HIST 477 American Mass Culture I: Revolution to Railroad (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

A social and cultural approach to United States history focused on mass culture. Examination of the construction of national ideals and the shaping of a common American identity, from the American Revolution to the Civil War.

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities

HIST 478 American Mass Culture II: Gilded Age to Digital Age (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

A social and cultural approach to United States history focused on mass culture, including mass communication, technological innovation, and popular entertainment. Examination of construction of national ideals and shaping of a common American identity, from the Gilded Age to present.

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Am. Ethnic & Racial Minorities

HIST 480 Thought and Culture in America to 1880 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

American thought and culture from colonial times to the 1880's. Intellectual movements and influential texts.
(This course is offered as HIST 480 and HUM 480. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 481 Thought and Culture in America: 1880 to the Present (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor;.

American thought and culture from the 1880s to the present. Intellectual movements and influential texts.
(This course is offered as HIST 481 and HUM 481. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 482 Religion in America (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

American religion, from colonial times to the present. Changing relations between religious thought and institutions. The range and variety of forms of religious expression in an increasingly urbanized, industrialized, and organized multicultural society.

HIST 484 Disability and Culture in American (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Examination of some of the major topics in U.S. history (industrialization, Civil War, eugenics, immigration, Great Depression, social policies, etc.) through the lens of "disability."

Course Attributes:

  • U.S. History
  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Social Justice

HIST 489 Dynamics of the American City (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Historical development and contemporary condition of urban America, city planning, federal-city relations; dynamics of urban policy making; class, gender, race, and ethnicity in urban America.
(This course is offered as USP 400 and HIST 489. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Social Justice

HIST 490 Topics in American History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Rotating course covering the history and historiography of a particular theme, event, or problem in U.S. History. Topics to be specified in class schedule. May be repeated when topics vary.

HIST 500 Colonial Latin America (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Hispanic America from preconquest times to independence. Indian, African, and Hispanic elements in the colonization process; the new colonial culture; political, economic, religious, racial, and sexual domination; and the legacy of colonialism.

HIST 501 Latin America: The National Period (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Latin America since independence (c. 1825). Histories of Latin American peoples: culture, race relations, women, political oppression and resistance, the economy, and development.
(This course is offered as HIST 501, ANTH 501, and LTNS 501. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 520 Central America and the Caribbean (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Political, economic, and social development from the colonial era to the present. Contemporary Central America and the Caribbean, especially post-revolutionary Cuba.

HIST 524 History of Mexico (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Mexico from colonial times to the present. Development of major economic, social, and political institutions.

HIST 528 History of Brazil (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Brazil from colonial times to the present. Role of Brazil in Latin American history, shifting patterns of economic activity, evolution of political institutions, development of cultural patterns.

HIST 535 History of Women in Latin America (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

History of the changing roles of women in Latin America from the colonial period to the present.
(This course is offered as HIST 535, WGS 535, and LTNS 533. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 550 Social Change in Modern Latin America (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Processes of modernization operative in various Latin American societies. 20th century developments which typify the region as a whole.

HIST 569 Ancient Chinese Civilization (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214.

The social, cultural, and political history of China, the oldest continuous civilization on earth, from the Neolithic through the end of the Tang, reconstructing the lives of philosophers, courtiers, monks, and commoners.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 570 Imperial China (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

The historical development of the Chinese empire from the budding of Neo-Confucianism, through the Mongol conquest, to the autocratic state of the Ming, down to the Manchu takeover, around 900-1700.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 571 History of Modern China (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

The rise and fall of the Ch'ing empire, the establishment of the Republic, the Communist Revolution, and its aftermath.

HIST 572 Taiwan: History, Memory, and Imagination (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Exploration of Taiwan's colonial legacies, ethnic tensions, democratization, as well as social, cultural, demographic, and economic developments through a historical study of films and fiction. [Formerly HIST 590 - topic course]

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 575 History of Women in China and Japan (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Social, cultural, intellectual, political, and economic lives of women in China and Japan.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives
  • Social Justice

HIST 578 History of Japan (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

The early cultural borrowings from China; the crystallization of feudal society; and the evolution of modern Japan since the Meiji restoration in 1868.

HIST 582 Tales from Ancient India: Hinduism and Buddhism (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 214.

Study of ancient Indian (Hindu and Buddhist) culture, religion, and literature. Examination of epics, plays, devotional and love poetry from Sanskrit and other Indian languages. Examination of family, gender, and patriarchy; kingship and power; heroism, love, war; ethics and devotion.
(This course is offered as HIST 582, HUM 582 and CLAS 582. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 583 Hindus and Muslims (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 214 or the equivalent.

Examination of the history of Hinduism and Islam, two of the world's great religious and political traditions. Special attention to cultural productions.

HIST 584 India and the British Empire (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

History of civilization of the Indian subcontinent to the present. Addresses political, economic, social, ethnic, and linguistic factors that shaped regional development.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Global Perspectives
  • Social Justice

HIST 585 India since Gandhi (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Introduction to themes in Indian history since the end of British colonial rule; the legacy of the British colonial empire, Gandhi and anti-colonial nationalism, Nehru's vision of India, and contemporary Indian nationalism.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives
  • Social Justice

HIST 588 History of Southeast Asia (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Transnational history of Southeast Asia from the eleventh century to the present. Principle cultural and political areas include Burma/Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.

HIST 590 Topics in Asian History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Rotating course covering the history and historiography of a particular theme, event, or problem in Asian History. Topics to be specified in class schedule. May be repeated when topics vary.

HIST 600 Ancient Near East: Cities and Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

History and culture of Ancient Mesopotamia from the Fourth Millennium B.C.E. through the creation and expansion of the Persian Empire in the First Millennium B.C.E.

HIST 603 History of the Ancient Near East: to Muhammad (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing, or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Examination of the cultural developments, contributions, and influences of ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, Crete, Anatolia, Greece, and Arabia from the dawn of civilization to the birth of Muhammad.

HIST 604 Islamic World I: 500 - 1500 (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Islamic civilization, culture, and history from 500-1500.

HIST 605 Islamic World II: 1500 - present (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Islamic civilization, culture, and history from 1500 to the present.

HIST 606 History of Iran and Afghanistan 1500 - Present (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing, ENG 214 or equivalent, or consent of instructor.

History of Iran from the rise of the Safavid Empire to the present. Beginning with a historical background, the course moves on to examine the history of Iran in a period of colonialism, revolution, and the rise of Islam.

HIST 607 Imperialism and Nationalism in the Recent Near East (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Imperialism and colonialism in Near East (West Asia and Northern Africa) in 20th and 21st centuries, and reaction and reform within the region.

HIST 609 Approaches to the African Past (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing; ENG 214; or consent of instructor.

Explorations of different methodologies for studying the African past, including archaeology, anthropology, oral traditions, and history.
(This course is offered as HIST 609 and ANTH 609. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 610 History of Africa (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

African cultures from the Iron Age to 1880 with emphasis on Africa south of the Sahara.

HIST 611 Modern Africa (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Rise and decline of European colonization and emergence of contemporary nationalist movements.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 612 Gender in African History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Upper division standing or consent of instructor.

Development of competencies around the theme of gender in the African past by working with a variety of texts and sources and the scholarship of leading researchers in this field.

Course Attributes:

  • UD-D: Social Sciences
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 619 Topics in World History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Upper division standing; ENG 214 or equivalent; or consent of instructor.

Rotating course covering the history and historiography of a transnational theme, event, or problem or in an area outside of Europe, Asia, or the United States. Topics to be specified in class schedule. May be repeated when topics vary.

HIST 620 Pirates and Piracy (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Examination of factors (political, social, cultural, and environmental) that give rise to piracy, and the various forms it takes across the world from ancient to modern times.

HIST 632 Jewish History I: Beginnings to 1650 (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 214 or equivalent.

Jewish history from the sixth century B.C.E. to the rise of European modernity. Politics, culture, and religion under empires of Persia, Hellenism, and Rome, and in medieval diasporas of Europe and lands of Islam.
(This course is offered as JS 632 and HIST 632. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 633 Jewish History II: 1650 to Present (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: ENG 214 or equivalent or consent of instructor.

Jewish history from 1650 to present. Central theme is the encounter of traditional ethnic and religious minority with modernity. Topics: emancipation, antisemitism, immigration, Zionism, Israel, America, Holocaust.
(This course is offered as JS 633 and HIST 633. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

Course Attributes:

  • UD-C: Arts and/or Humanities
  • Global Perspectives

HIST 640 Proseminar: European History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing, ENG 214 or equivalent, HIST 300GW, or consent of instructor.

Seminar-style culminating experience focused principally on topics in European History. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated when topics vary.

HIST 642 Proseminar: American History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent, HIST 300GW.

Seminar-style culminating experience focused principally on topics in US History. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated when topics vary.

HIST 644 Proseminar in World History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing, ENG 214 or equivalent, HIST 300GW, or consent of instructor.

Seminar-style culminating experience focused principally on a transnational theme or regional topic. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated when topics vary.

HIST 660 Computer Methodology for Historians (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent, and HIST 300GW,

Use of computers for on-line research and communication via the Internet, library catalogs, and similar resources.

HIST 680 Archives or Historical Agency Internship (Units: 3-4)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent; major in history; and consent of department chair.

Internship with an archive or other historical agency. Development of knowledge, experience, and training in archival or historical agency work.

HIST 681 Community Service Learning in the Schools (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Upper division standing.

Projects in history and social studies learning at the K-12 level. Meets state early field experience requirement for multiple and single subject credential program admissions. May be repeated for a total of 6 units. [CSL may be available]
(This course is offered as LS 681 and HIST 681. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 690 Editing and Publishing the History Journal (Units: 1-4)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent, and HIST 300GW.

Supervised experience in editing and production of an annual journal of research. Not applicable to major or minor fields in history. May be taken for a total of 4 units. (CR/NC grading only)

HIST 697 Honors Thesis (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent, and HIST 660 (may be taken concurrently),

Tutorial leading to an honors project or thesis based on study of a topic. Topic to be determined by student and faculty member.

HIST 698 Directed Reading in History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Upper division standing or consent of instructor; ENG 214 or equivalent.

Directed reading in selected areas of history under the supervision of a faculty member.

HIST 699 Independent Study (Units: 1-4)

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor, major adviser, and department chair. Supervised study of a particular problem selected by the student.

HIST 700 History as a Field of Knowledge (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Seminar in the problems in the historical inquiry and facilities designed to prepare master's candidates for research and teaching.

HIST 701 The Historiography of World History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Seminar examining the varieties of world history writing since World War II. Emphasis on the new world history approaches since the 1970s. May be repeated for a total of 6 units with a different instructor. May not repeat with the same instructor. (Plus-minus letter grade only.)

HIST 702 Sexuality in Historical Perspective (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Restricted to graduate students in Human Sexuality Studies or History; or consent of instructor.

Traces the growing scholarship on the historical study of sexuality primarily in the U.S. Introduces students to a variety of historical studies on sexuality and assesses the validity and value of the work.
(This course is offered as SXS 702 and HIST 702. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 705 Approaches to History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: HIST 700 or consent of instructor.

Broad exposure to a single approach to history in a way that would build upon and serve as a companion to HIST 700. Course readings are global in scope and cover a broad wide swath of time. Topic to be specified in the Class Schedule. May be repeated when topics vary. (Plus-minus letter grade only)

HIST 710 Seminar in Ancient and Medieval History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Graduate seminar in a topic, theme, or problem in Mediterranean or global history prior to c.800. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated as topics vary.

HIST 720 Seminar in Medieval History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Graduate seminar in a topic, theme, or problem in European or global history c.800-1400. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated when topics vary.

HIST 730 Seminar in Early Modern European History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Graduate seminar in a topic, theme, or problem in European history c.1400-1815. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated as topics vary.

HIST 740 Seminar in the History of Europe Since 1815 (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Graduate seminar in a topic, theme, or problem in European history since 1815. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated as topics vary.

HIST 741 The Holocaust and Postwar Germany Taught in English (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in German, History, or Jewish Studies, or consent of instructor.

The Holocaust in Postwar Germany as seen in exemplary works of literature, historical documents and Nuremburg trials. (Plus-minus letter grade only) [Taught in English]
(This course is offered as GER 741, HIST 741, and JS 741. Students may not repeat the course under an alternate prefix.)

HIST 780 Seminar in American History To 1877 (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Graduate seminar in a topic, theme, or problem in U.S. history before and including the period of Reconstruction. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated as topics vary.

HIST 785 College Teaching of History (Units: 1-3)

Prerequisites: HIST 700 and 12 additional history units with GPA of at least 3.35.

Training and teaching of history at the college level. Pedagogical workshop and classroom experience. May be repeated for a total of 4 units for degree credit. (CR/NC grading only)

HIST 790 Seminar in American History Since 1877 (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Graduate seminar in a topic, theme, or problem in U.S. history since the period of Reconstruction. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated when topics vary.

HIST 799 Directed Historiography (Unit: 1)

Prerequisites: Graduate standing in History; concurrent with an upper division history class.

Graduate students complete additional reading during enrollment in upper division history class. May be repeated for a total of 3 units.

HIST 805 Seminar in the History of Women (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in history or consent of instructor.

Topics in the history of women and feminism to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated when topics vary.

HIST 830 Seminar in Latin American History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Graduate seminar in a topic, theme, or problem in the history of Latin America and the Caribbean. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated as topics vary.

HIST 840 Readings in Southeast Asian History (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Major topics and readings in Southeast Asian history, including differences among the eleven modern nations within the region; the influence of foreign powers on Southeast Asian societies; the historical role of Southeast Asia in international economic, political, and cultural exchange.

HIST 850 Topics in World History Since 1500 (Units: 3)

Prerequisite: Graduate standing in History or consent of instructor.

Graduate seminar in a topic, theme, or problem in early modern and modern global history. Courses may be thematic and transnational, or may focus on a specific region. Topic to be specified in Class Schedule. May be repeated as topics vary. (Plus-minus letter grade only)

HIST 880 Archives or Historical Agency Internship (Units: 3-4)

Prerequisites: Graduate standing in History and consent of department chair.

Internship with an archive or other historical agency. Development of knowledge, experience, and training in archival or historical agency work.

HIST 890 Editing and Publishing the History Journal (Units: 1-4)

Prerequisites: Graduate standing in History; HIST 700; and consent of instructor.

Supervised experience in editing and production of an annual journal of research. Not applicable to major or minor fields in history. May be taken for a total of 4 units. (CR/NC grading only)

HIST 896 Directed Reading in History (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Graduate standing in History; and approval of Advancement to Candidacy (ATC) and Culminating Experience (CE) forms by Graduate Studies.

Directed reading in one historical field, based upon a standard bibliography and consultation with departmental specialists in that field. Not open to M.A. candidates who choose to write a thesis.

HIST 896EXM Culminating Experience Examination (Units: 0-3)

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor, committee chair, and approval of Advancement to Candidacy (ATC) and Culminating Experience (CE) forms by Graduate Studies. ATC and Proposal for Culminating Experience Requirement forms must be approved by the Graduate Division before registration.

Enrollment in 896EXAM required for students whose culminating experience consists of an examination only. Not for students enrolled in a culminating experience course numbered 892, 893, 894, 895, 898, or 998, (or in some cases, courses numbered 890 - see program's graduate advisor for further information). (CR/NC, RP)

HIST 898 Master's Thesis (Units: 3)

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor and candidate's committee chair; and approval of Advancement to Candidacy (ATC) and Culminating Experience (CE) forms by Graduate Studies. ATC and Proposal for Culminating Experience Requirement forms must be approved by the Graduate Division before registration. (CR/NC grading only)

HIST 899 Independent Study (Units: 1-4)

Prerequisite: Consent of the graduate major adviser, the supervising faculty member, and the department chair.

Study is planned, developed, and completed under the direction of a member of the departmental faculty. Open only to graduate students who have demonstrated ability to do independent work. Enrollment by petition.